Saturday, January 22, 2022

Mouth-breathing: Why it’s bad for you and how to stop

Dentists may be first to diagnose patients who mouth breathe 

For some, the phrase "spring is in the air" is quite literal. When the winter snow melts and flowers bloom, pollen and other materials can wreak havoc on those suffering from seasonal allergies, usually causing a habit called "mouth breathing." The physical, medical and social problems associated with mouth breathing are not recognized by most health care professionals, according to a study published in the January/February 2010 issue of General Dentistry, the peer-reviewed clinical journal of the Academy of General Dentistry (AGD). Dentists typically request that their patients return every six months, which means that some people see their dentist more frequently than they see their physician. As a result, dentists may be the first to identify the symptoms of mouth breathing. And, because dentists understand the problems associated with mouth breathing, they can help prevent the adverse effects.

"Allergies can cause upper airway obstruction, or mouth breathing, in patients," said Yosh Jefferson, DMD, author of the study. "Almost every family has someone with mouth breathing problems."

Over time, children whose mouth breathing goes untreated may suffer from abnormal facial and dental development, such as long, narrow faces and mouths, gummy smiles, gingivitis and crooked teeth. The poor sleeping habits that result from mouth breathing can adversely affect growth and academic performance. As Dr. Jefferson notes in his article, "Many of these children are misdiagnosed with attention deficit disorder (ADD) and hyperactivity." In addition, mouth breathing can cause poor oxygen concentration in the bloodstream, which can cause high blood pressure, heart problems, sleep apnea and other medical issues.

"Children who mouth breathe typically do not sleep well, causing them to be tired during the day and possibly unable to concentrate on academics," Dr. Jefferson said. "If the child becomes frustrated in school, he or she may exhibit behavioral problems."

Treatment for mouth breathing is available and can be beneficial for children if the condition is caught early. A dentist can check for mouth breathing symptoms and swollen tonsils. If tonsils and/or adenoids are swollen, they can be surgically removed by an ear-nose-throat (ENT) specialist. If the face and mouth are narrow, dentists can use expansion appliances to help widen the sinuses and open nasal airway passages.

"After surgery and/or orthodontic intervention, many patients show improvement in behavior, energy level, academic performance, peer acceptance and growth," says Leslie Grant, DDS, spokesperson for the AGD. "Seeking treatment for mouth breathing can significantly improve quality of life."

At this time, many health care professionals are not aware of the health problems associated with mouth breathing. If you or your child suffers from this condition, speak with a health care professional who is knowledgeable about mouth breathing.

To learn more about oral health, visit

Breathing through your nose has long been considered superior to breathing through your mouth. ‘Mouth-breather’ has been used as an insult for a stupid person since at least 1915, and people who do it are sometimes said to be unattractive. But while training yourself to breathe through the nose might not make you beautiful and smart, it could have very real impacts on your health, from your teeth to your fitness.

We spoke to science journalist James Nestor on the Instant Genius podcast. He’s the author of Breath: The New Science of a Lost Art, which was shortlisted for the Royal Society Science Book Prize 2021. He explained why we’re the “worst breathers in the animal kingdom”, what mouth-breathing does to your health, and how you can train yourself to breathe through your nose.

Why does it matter how we breathe?

Our body takes care of our breathing automatically, so you’d think we’d default to breathing in the way that’s best for us. Unfortunately, that’s not necessarily the case. “Every time we need to breathe, we do it unconsciously. But the problem is, we could be doing it improperly or inefficiently, and that could be our habit,” says Nestor. “And then we carry this habit around with us our whole lives, and we can suffer from some very serious health consequences if we aren’t breathing correctly.”

Even worse, this seems to be a uniquely human problem. “We are the worst breathers in the animal kingdom,” says Nestor. “That’s quite a claim. But if you don’t believe me, go into the wild and look at how animals are breathing.

“If you look at primates, they breathe into their stomachs. They breathe very fluidly, very calmly. If you look at a cheetah running at 100 kilometres an hour, it is breathing through its nose very calmly.”

Even our ancestors breathed differently to us. We can look at the skulls of ancient people and compare their facial structures to ours, with surprising results.

“I was invited to go to the University of Pennsylvania to the Morton Collection, which is the largest collection of pre-industrial skulls in the world. Thousands and thousands of these things; skulls from Africa, from Asia, from South America, from Polynesia, all over the place,” said Nestor.

“And every single one of them had perfectly straight teeth. So, crooked teeth is a modern problem. And the first thing you ask is, well, why do we have crooked teeth? We have crooked teeth because our mouths have grown so small. And when our mouths have grown so small, teeth have nowhere to grow in straight, so they grow in crooked. With that small mouth, you also have a smaller airway and the breathing and respiratory problems that come with that.”
Why is it better to breathe through the nose?

You might think that air is air, and as long as we’re getting enough of it into our bodies, it doesn’t make a difference how we breathe it. But that’s not entirely true – the mechanics of breathing mean that air that came in through the nose is different from air from the mouth.

“The reason why this is so important is because when you breathe through the nose, you are forcing air through all of these very intricate structures. And as that air is forced through these structures, it’s heated up, it’s humidified, it’s pressurised, and it’s filtered,” Nestor says. “So, that air, when it gets to your lungs, can be so much more easily uploaded into your bloodstream.

“We can extract about 20 per cent more oxygen breathing through our noses than we can equivalent breaths through our mouths.” That’s no small difference, especially when you’re exercising. A 1996 study showed that breathing exclusively through the nose during exercise not only lowers your breathing, but also significantly increases your endurance. And on top of that, you might even feel more comfortable doing it: participants felt like they were exerting themselves less.

The nose’s filtration system also plays an important role in your immune system. First, air passes the nasal hairs in your nostrils, which capture pollen and other allergens. A study published in 2011 showed that hay fever sufferers with a greater density of nasal hairs were less likely to develop asthma.

The air then passes into the nasal cavity, which is lined with mucus and hair-like filters called cilia. These collect dust, soot, debris and even bacteria. “The nose is our first line of defence, including against viruses and bacteria,” Nestor says.
Can you train yourself to breathe through the nose?

Some people who breathe through the mouth do so because of severe damage to the nose, such as a deviated septum or nasal polyps. If that’s the case, talk to your doctor. They may be able to recommend treatments such as surgery or steroids, depending on the cause.

“But for the vast majority of us, it comes down to a habit,” says Nestor. “Our nose will respond to what is given to it. So, our noses are covered with erectile tissue, so this tissue will flex, it will flex open, and it will flex closed. The more you breathe through the mouth, the more this tissue is going to stay closed. The more you start breathing through the nose, the more this tissue opens.

“It’s really a ‘use it or lose it’ organ.”

If you’re already losing it, you can get it back, using it won’t be easy at first. “It’s miserable usually for four weeks or even months. But once you make it over that hump, as we’ve seen time and time again, performance often increases, recovery decreases, and you’re able to function so much more efficiently.”

During the day, training your breathing is easy enough: when you notice yourself breathing through the mouth, make a conscious effort to close your mouth and breathe through the nose instead. Nose-breathing while you sleep, however, is a different matter.

One thing you can try is to place a small piece of surgical tape over your lips when you go to bed. “I was told by a Stanford researcher that she prescribes this to all of her patients,” says Nestor. “The technology is pretty simple, but it is absolutely transformative to my sleep. And this is the one thing that I’ve heard from literally thousands of people that this is the biggest hack that they’ve had for their health.”

If you’re not sure whether you’re a mouth-breather at night, pay attention to whether you wake up with a dry mouth. If you need to drink a lot of water, or you have bad breath in the morning, it might be because you’re breathing through your mouth. Snoring can also be an effect of mouth-breathing, so ask a partner if they’ve heard you.

The biggest effect of mouth-breathing at night is the impact it can have on the quality of your sleep. You could consider using a tracker to measure your sleep quality to make sure you’re not missing out on vital rest.

Saturday, January 15, 2022

Expert reveals the dos and don't of getting out of the toxic situation - and says an ultimatum is NOT the answerExpert has explained how love triangles can emerge within even the most loving partnerships.

A relationship expert has explained how love triangles can emerge within even the most loving partnerships - and the steps you can take to extract yourself from one.  

Tina Wilson, a UK-based expert and founder of dating app Wingman, explained love triangles occur when feelings spiral out of control.

'It's important to realise that a complex love situation isn't something that someone plans to put into action, but rather it's the fall out of emotional situations that span out of control,' she told FEMAIL. 

'Most people will find themselves involved in this dilemma at some point in their lives. Matters of the heart are not always straightforward.'

Tina said there are two different kind of love triangles. 'Most commonly the situation will be set with two people competing for the love of the third person at the same time,' she said. 

'But the term can also be linked to a polyamorous relationship, where three people are all involved with each other. 

'Being in the most common love triangle will be a highly charged rollercoaster ride and will involve emotional turmoil for each person involved. Untangling a love triangle won't be an easy or quick task, so its key to see if it's something you really want to put energy into.' 

How to disentangle a love triangle  

How you handle the situation will depend on where you find yourself in the love triangle. But one thing is common, wherever you find yourself, you must ask yourself, 'What do I want?'

Depending on how you sit within a love triangle will alter the experience but it's not a nice ride for anyone.

To find out that your partner or date even wants to be romantically involved with someone else is hurtful for the heart and also the ego. 

Whether the relationship is physical or not, it signals they are 'unfilled' in their current relationship with you and although it's likely nothing to do with you, and it's to do with their own issues, you can feel extremely emotionally attacked and if  you are in a serious relationship, just finding this is out can be a devastating blow. 

Alternatively, you may be the person seeing someone behind your partner's back, or even wanting to seek romance with another person who is already with someone. 

No matter where you sit, an imbalanced love triangle is not sustainable, and you should work to take steps to end it. 

The dos and don'ts on how to end a love triangle 


Don't lash out. It's easy to react emotionally when you discover your partner is looking elsewhere, but it's important for you to figure out how you feel before you lash out. Make sure you get all the facts you can before blurting something out.

Don't give an ultimatum as they aren't always the answer. Don't immediately throw out an ultimatum of 'its them or me' rather look at the reasons why your relationship is here and ask yourself if this is something you really want to fight for. Just because they choose you today, doesn't mean they would choose you tomorrow and you don't want to put yourself in a bad cycle, so if you are going to offer an ultimatum, you have to really be ready to stick to it.

Don't allow your partner to call all the shots. No matter if you are the chaser or the one being chased do not let your partner call the shots. You are important in the relationship and feeling out of control will only be exasperated by your partner driving what happens. Know your self-worth and boundaries.

Don't drag out the decision by going back and forth. It is wise to consider your position and feelings, however, don't give false hope to your partner by not being up front and indecisive. If you get back together but things aren't right, you will end up splitting up anyway so communicate honestly so each party can move on if you decide you can't move past things.

Don't try and have your cake and eat it. If the love triangle is something that you have created, it's logical to want to see where both options can go, but this could wind up with you having zero options the longer you play both sides. Having an emotional connection and even a sexual chemistry with someone other than your partner is not unusual, but it's how you react to those feelings that is most important


Confide in a friend. If you find yourself thrown into a love triangle it is easy to jump into the drama, but it's key to get your ducks in a row before blowing anything up. Surround yourself with a trusted friend or family member to talk it through with and get some context aside from just how you feel.

Know what your options are. It's key for you to feel emotionally stable before making any lasting decisions, so be logical and force yourself to list out the pros and cons of your relationship and your options. Being mentally prepared for any outcome will provide you with an inner confidence, knowing that whatever happens, you will be ok.

Don't fight for something you don't really want. Being rejected feels awful but its key to figure out if you are just reacting to a hurt ego, or if it's an emotional heartache.

Try and distract yourself. Take some time out by distracting yourself temporarily. The best way to plot your next move is to take a different perspective. Thinking clearly and objectively is the key to sound decision-making. Be smart about it and don't be hasty over a potentially life changing decision. Take a spa day or a shopping trip to clear your head.

Be kind to yourself and true to what you want. It's easy to absorb external opinions from friends and family but this is your life so don't judge yourself too harshly. No-one knows what they would do in a situation and cannot predict it, so don't behave in a way just because it's expected of you. Make sure you take your time to process it for yourself.

Talk it through with someone you trust and then rip of the Band Aid and do it. Whilst it will be messy for the short-term if you are holding back a person for an option it's unfair to them, so whilst they may be upset, it could be the best thing to happen for them and will allow them to find their worthy match.


Thursday, January 13, 2022

Feeling low in social status linked to worse health outcomes for new mothers

When it comes to the link between socioeconomic status and health, perception can be as important as reality. A study published by the American Psychological Association finds that new mothers who see themselves as lower on the socioeconomic ladder have worse health outcomes one year after their child's birth than new mothers who see themselves as higher status.

Among women whose basic material needs are met, this self-perceived status can have a stronger effect on health than their actual income and education level, the study found. It was published in the journal Health Psychology.

++ Our findings highlight one way in which socioeconomic status may influence maternal health disparities. This could be particularly relevant right now, given the pandemic-driven upheavals in employment that may be affecting people's perceptions of their own social status.++

Poverty has long been linked to adverse health outcomes, and some previous research has found that that subjective social status – people's perception of their own social status relative to others in the U.S. – can also affect health. But the question of whether subjective social status affects biological markers of health had never been explored in women during the year after the birth of a child, according to the researchers.

Guardino and co-author Christine Dunkel Schetter, PhD, of the University of California Los Angeles, analyzed data from 1,168 new mothers in five areas – rural, suburban and urban – across the U.S. The data came from Community Child Health Network, a research study funded by the National Institute for Child Health and Development that focused on low-income families.

The participants enrolled in the study during hospital stays following the birth of a child. During home visits at one month, six months and 12 months after the women gave birth, researchers collected health data including participants' blood pressure, body mass index, cholesterol and cortisol levels. They also collected demographic data including education level and household income. And they asked participants to rate their subjective social status using an established method in which they showed the participants a picture of a ladder representing where people stand in the U.S. and asked them to indicate the rung on which they saw themselves (1 being the lowest and 10 being the highest).

The researchers found that participants who perceived themselves as having higher social status had lower allostatic load – a combined measure of multiple health variables that reflects "wear and tear" on the body due to stress. In fact, the strength of the association between participants' perceived social status and allostatic load was stronger than the association between their income and allostatic load.

However, the researchers also found that the association varied depending on participants' income and education – it was strongest for participants whose incomes were higher than 153% of the federal poverty level and who had completed high school or more education.

"People living near or below the federal poverty level are often coping with inadequate food, shelter and access to health care, all of which influence health," Guardino said. "Perceptions of social status may have stronger effects on health when people's basic material needs are met."

The study is the first to look at the health effects of subjective social status in postpartum women, according to the researchers, and provides further evidence that people's perceptions of their own social status can affect their health even beyond objective measures such as income and education.


Journal reference:

Guardino, C., & Dunkel Schetter, C., (2022) Subjective Social Status and Allostatic Load in Mothers One Year After Birth. Health Psychology.

Sunday, January 9, 2022

Brain tissue study sheds light on how exercise can fight dementia

A new post-mortem brain tissue study is offering clues as to how exercise in old age can improve brain health and prevent cognitive decline. The research found late-life physical activity was associated with higher levels of presynaptic proteins, molecules previously found to support healthy brain functions.

It is, of course, no newsflash to suggest exercise can help keep your brain healthy. For years scientists have consistently found physical activity can improve cognitive function, particularly in elderly subjects experiencing the early stages of Alzheimer’s and dementia.

But exactly how exercise can improve brain health and prevent cognitive decline is still a bit of a mystery. Several animal studies have pointed to certain mechanisms that may be playing a role but validating those findings in humans can prove challenging.

This new research focused on a collection of proteins known to play a role in maintaining healthy synaptic functions. A study published last year reported a correlation between high levels of these presynaptic proteins and reduced accumulations of toxic proteins associated with neurodegeneration and cognitive decline.

The prior study tracked levels of these presynaptic proteins in spinal fluid from living elderly subjects and in post-mortem brain tissue samples. The new research set out to investigate whether physical activity could be linked to presynaptic protein levels in the brain.

Over 400 brain tissue samples were analyzed. The tissue samples came from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a long-term brain health study tracking the health of elderly subjects in their final years.

The findings reveal a significant correlation between physical activity in late-life and increased levels of presynaptic proteins. Kaitlin Casaletto, a neuropsychologist working on both studies, says the findings validate the hypothesis that maintaining synaptic health in one’s senior years may be key to staving off age-related dementia.

“In older adults with higher levels of the proteins associated with synaptic integrity, this cascade of neurotoxicity that leads to Alzheimer’s disease appears to be attenuated,” says Casaletto. “Taken together, these two studies show the potential importance of maintaining synaptic health to support the brain against Alzheimer’s disease.”

William Honer, from the University of British Columbia and senior author on the new study, has previously found high levels of presynaptic proteins in post-mortem brain tissue to correlate with strong cognitive function in later life. In this study Honer was surprised to find physical activity linked to a broad spread of these beneficial proteins across the entire brain, and not just in the hippocampus, a brain region commonly considered the center of memory function.

“It may be that physical activity exerts a global sustaining effect, supporting and stimulating healthy function of proteins that facilitate synaptic transmission throughout the brain,” says Honer.

Ultimately, this new study offers just one small piece in a larger puzzle as researchers develop ways to maintain cognitive health in later life. Casaletto says these findings indicate improving synaptic functioning through physical exercise may be one way to help stave off age-related dementia.

“Our work is the first that uses human data to show that synaptic protein regulation is related to physical activity and may drive the beneficial cognitive outcomes we see,” says Casaletto. “Maintaining the integrity of these connections between neurons may be vital to fending off dementia, since the synapse is really the site where cognition happens. Physical activity – a readily available tool – may help boost this synaptic functioning.”

The new study was published in the journal Alzheimer’s & Dementia.

Wednesday, January 5, 2022

A psychologist explains why people believe in conspiracy theories

With tinfoil hats at the ready, conspiracy theories have proliferated during the pandemic, aided by a number of circumstances.

In the wake of the US Capitol riot and the COVID-19 pandemic, conspiracy theories are running rampant. Whether it’s the idea that the world is being run by Satan-loving paedophiles or that coronavirus is spread by 5G technology, for those of us for whom such claims seem outlandish and ridiculous, it is extremely difficult to understand why anyone would believe them. However, psychology researchers have uncovered a range of explanatory factors, from basic perceptual processes to emotional issues.

For instance, while all of us can be prone to seeing illusory patterns (such as a face in the clouds), a study led by Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam showed that this tendency is heightened among believers in conspiracy theories. This means they are likely to see apparent connections between disparate events that the rest of us just don’t notice.

Of course, many conspiracy theories make claims that are factually incorrect or they are based on fundamentally flawed logic. Unfortunately, believers in the theories are not only more likely to see illusory connections, research shows they are also less likely to have had the kind of education or have the critical thinking skills necessary to help them see the glaring holes in their wild theories.

At the same time, believers in conspiracies often have an inflated sense of their own intellectual competence – research led by the late Scott Lilienfeld at Emory University in Atlanta showed that in personality trait terms, believers tend to be lower in ‘intellectual humility’. Ignorance combined with overconfidence creates a fertile ground for unsubstantiated beliefs to take hold.

There is also a powerful emotional component to conspiracy theory beliefs, which helps explain why they can be so difficult to challenge. Believing in a widely discredited theory – and feeling part of a community of fellow believers – can help to satisfy some people’s need to feel special, according to research.

Studies have also shown believers are also more prone to anxiety and a sense that they lack control – feelings alleviated by subscribing to a conspiracy theory being spread with such apparent conviction by others.

Wednesday, December 29, 2021

Scientists find plant genes that may finally get rid of ‘spinach teeth’

Spinach fans may love the healthy benefits of eating this superfood, but they’re also familiar with the annoying, gritty, and chalky mouthfeel it leaves them with afterwards. Now, scientists may finally be able to remove the plant genes which give many people “spinach teeth.”

A team from the Boyce Thompson Institute (BTI) and six Chinese universities say they found the genes in spinach that regulate how much oxalate the leafy green contains. This compound, which is also abundant in beans, has its pros and cons. While it causes people to have “spinach teeth,” it also plays a key role in fighting off downy mildew — a major disease in crops.

Finding out what controls levels of oxalate in crops may allow scientists to engineer more appealing brands of spinach which don’t give eaters that chalky mouthfeel.

“I think more consumers would be willing to buy spinach that has less oxalate,” says BTI faculty member and study co-leader Zhangjun Fei in a media release. “Dietary oxalate can interfere with mineral absorption and may lead to kidney stones, and less oxalate would also make spinach more palatable to a wider market.”

Study authors add that the discovery may also help farmers produce even more disease-resistant varieties of spinach. In this study, they compared the genomes of both cultivated (Spinacia oleracea) and wild varieties (S. turkestanica and S. tetranda) to find the genetic traits which would be most important to both farmers and consumers.

“Our results provide rich resources for the spinach community, especially those working on increasing downy mildew resistance, improving leaf texture and reducing oxalate content,” adds co-corresponding author Chen Jiao, a professor in the College of Agriculture and Biotechnology at Zhejiang University.
Changes in spinach come mostly from moving around the world

Researchers sequenced the genomes of 295 cultivated varieties of S. oleracea and 10 groups of the two wild varieties during this study. In both comparative genomic analyses and genome-wide association studies (GWAS), the team found that most of spinach’s genetic differences come from the plant’s adaptation to new environments — as humans brought the crop with them from Asia to Europe.

A few of the variations also reflect the local preferences of the people producing the leafy green, including flat or wrinkled leaves.

“I think our most interesting finding is that the genetic diversity between Asian and European spinach is higher than it is between cultivated and wild spinaches, which is not very common in other crops,” Jiao says. “This increases our knowledge of how human selection diversifies crop plants.”

The study also confirmed the role of the NBR-LRR family of genes in spinach, which fight off downy mildew. Moreover, scientists identified areas along spinach’s genome which play smaller-but-still-important roles in plant disease resistance. These areas include a “promoter region” in the gene WSD6, which encodes the enzyme that reinforces the waxy physical barrier spinach leaves use to keep pathogens away.

“Like most plants, disease resistance in spinach is controlled by a network of genetic regions,” Fei explains. “If you can ‘stack’ disease-resistant gene variants into one variety then you will get better resistance than with just one gene variant.”
Balancing mouthfeel with disease prevention will be tricky

When it comes to better mouthfeel, researchers say they found two genes which encode metal and metal ion transporters. They believe this process is what regulates how much oxalate spinach has. When you lower that amount, the chalky aftertaste goes away.

Although the study findings reveal the blueprint for making spinach tastier, the team cautions that this will be a difficult balancing act for geneticists. Since oxalates are also vital to disease resistance, taking them away makes spinach more vulnerable to pests and pathogens. Fei says scientists will have to find other genes in the crop which promote the plant’s disease-fighting properties and modify them too.

“Plants usually depend on networks of genetic factors to defend themselves; removing one means findings the right balance among the others,” Fei concludes.

The study is published in the journal Nature Communications.

Tuesday, December 28, 2021

Drought-hit western US walloped by powerful winter storm

A powerful winter storm battered the western United States Monday, dumping much-needed snow on the drought-parched mountains of California, but causing travel misery over a wide area.

Three feet (one meter) of snow had fallen in 24 hours on parts of the Sierra Nevada range, taking December's total to a record-breaking 16 feet, and bolstering the badly depleted snowpack that feeds the region's reservoirs.

"We were definitely not expecting a wet winter," said Dr. Andrew Schwartz, lead scientist at the Central Sierra Nevada Snow Laboratory at UC Berkeley, California.

"It just so happens that we ended up with a lot more snow this year than we expected, which is a pleasant surprise, of course," Schwartz told AFP.

The US west has suffered years of pitiful rainfall, leaving vast swaths of the countryside parched and vulnerable to wildfire.

It is too soon to declare the drought over, said Schwartz, but "it looks like the western United States is getting some help."

The immediate impact of the storm was less positive, with tens of thousands of people experiencing electricity outages and roads blocked.

Pacific Gas and Electric reported power lines had been felled by the fierce weather, with more still to come.

"Winter storm system forecasted to bring more snow, rain & wind—electric and vegetation crews have restored service to nearly 50k customers since Christmas morning and are prepared to respond to potential outages ahead," the utility said on social media.

In Seattle, in northern Washington state, heavy snow was causing delays and cancellations for travelers, with airport operators having to remove ice from planes, as the city suffered under plunging temperatures.

"After a year of unprecedented challenges, Seattle is facing a long duration of dangerously cold temperatures & snow," tweeted Mayor Jenny Durkan.

"We've declared an emergency to allow Seattle to marshal full resources required to protect residents, provide warm spaces & support our frontline workers."

Much of Oregon was also under a winter storm warning, with a further blanketing of snow expected overnight Monday.

"Snow returns tonight!" tweeted the weather service in Portland, Oregon's biggest city.

"The heaviest snowfall is expected late tonight into early Tuesday morning with 1 to 3 inches for the valley and coast."

While the US west was laboring under heavy winter weather, Texas was sweltering in an unseasonably warm spell, with the Christmas Day mercury topping out at a toasty 93 degrees Fahrenheit (34 degrees Celsius) in Rio Grande Village.

Scientists say human-caused global warming is playing havoc with the climate, making storms more intense and unpredictable, and generating high temperatures in unexpected places.


Mouth-breathing: Why it’s bad for you and how to stop

Dentists may be first to diagnose patients who mouth breathe  Peer-Reviewed Publication ACADEMY OF GENERAL DENTISTRY For some, the phrase &q...